Heavy napped Cotton Twill fabric
Bedford Cord - A strong ribbed weave fabric with raised lines or cords produced by warp stuffing threads. May be wool, silk, cotton, rayon, or combination fibers. Warp pique is a lighter weight Bedford cord fabric used for dress goods. First made in America in New Bedford, Mass., hence its name.
Bengaline - A sturdy warp-faced fabric with pronounced crosswise ribs formed by bulky, coarse, plied yarns or rubber thread. Filling is not discernible on back or face of goods. Originating in Bengal, India it is used mainly in coatings, swimsuits, mourning ensembles, and women's headwear. When cut to ribbon widths is called grosgrain.
Camel hair - wool-like under hair of the camel that is lustrous and extremely soft; often used in blends with wool for suits, coats, sweaters, blankets, rugs. Natural colors from light tan to brownish black.
Cashmere - fine downy undercoat hair of the Cashmere goat from Tibet, Iran, Ira, and Southwest China. Cylindrical hair that is soft, strong, and silken. True cashmere is brownish in shade from 1 1/4 to 3 1/2 inches in staple length. Diameter is 1/1600-inch.
Corduroy - A cut filling pile cloth with narrow to wide wales which run in the warp direction and made possible by use of an extra set of filling yarns in the construction. The back is of plain or twill weave. Washable types are available and stretch and durable press versions are very popular. Usually an all-cotton cloth, today many corduroys are made with blends of polyester, nylon, or other fibers.
Crêpe - A variety of lightweight fabrics characterized by a crinkly surface obtained either via use of hard twist yarns, chemical treatments, weave, construction, or some form of embossing or surface treatment.
Denim - First brought to America by Columbus almost 500 years ago on the Santa Maria, this basic cloth is rugged, tough and serviceable. It is easily recognized by its traditional indigo-blue color warp and grey or mottled white filling, and its left hand twill on the face. Coarse single yarns are used mostly, but today many versions are available for the fashion world. A two-up and one-down or a three-up and one-down twill may be used in the weave construction. Long considered the most popular fabric for work clothes and army uniforms, denim today has won great fashion significance in dress goods for women's and men's wear, a wide range of sportswear, and even evening wear.
Doeskin - Properly a leather made from the skin of a doe. Also used to describe: 2. A heavy five- or eight-shaft satin-weave cotton fabric napped on one side, or 2. A heavy short-napped woolen fabric used for men's wear. The term Doeskin Finish should be used.
Faille - A lightweight ribbed silk or rayon cloth with crosswise rib effect. It is soft in feel and belongs to the grosgrain family of cross-rib materials. Used for coats, dress goods, handbags. Faille is rather difficult to launder. Has good draping effects, and gives good service if handled carefully. Woolen and worsted flannels are also popular.
Gabardine - Firm, durable, compactly woven cloth which shows a decided diagonal line on the face of the goods; made on a 45-degree or 63-degree, right-hand twill.
Gingham - Fabric with dyed yarns introduced at given intervals in both warp and filling to achieve block or check effects. The warp and filling may often be the same, even-sided, and balanced.
Gun Club Checks - Men's and women's wear dress goods used for street and sportswear. Three colors of yarn are used in making the cloth. The warp and filling make a natty combination in the cloth. Men's wear cloth often has a smaller check than women's wear cloth.
Harris Tweed - A trademark for an imported tweed made of virgin wool from the Highlands of Scotland, spun, dyed, and handwoven by islanders in Harris and other islands of the Hebrides.
Herringbone Twill - A broken twill weave giving a zigzag effect produced by alternating the direction of the will. Same as the chevron weave. Structural design resembles backbone of herring. A true herringbone should have the same number of yarns in each direction, right and left, and be evenly balanced. Thus, all herringbones are broken twills but all broken twills are not true herringbones.
Hopsacking - Popular woolen or worsted suiting fabric made from a 2-and-2 or a 3-and-3 basket weave. The weave effect is like that used for sacking to gather hops in the fields. Now made from other major fibers, hopsacking is used also for dress goods, jackets, skirts, and blouses.
Horsehair - The long and lustrous hair taken from the main and tail of horses. One of the most common uses is in blends with other fibers for hair canvas interfacings.
Hound's Tooth - A medium-sized broken-check effect, often used in checks, clear-finish worsted, woolen dress goods, etc. The weave used is a four-end twill based on a herringbone weave with four ends to the right, followed by four ends to the left. The color is completely surrounded by white yarn, and the check is a four-pointed star; this two-up and two-down basic construction fabric is a staple in the fabric trade.
Jersey - A plain stitch knitted cloth in contrast to a rib-knitted fabric. Material may be made circular, flat or warp knitted; the latter type jersey is sometimes known as tricot. Used in dress goods, sportswear, underwear. Gives good service and launders very well. A very popular staple. Some fabric of this name is woven.
Lamb's Wool - Elastic, soft, resilient wool fibers obtained from lambs when they are seven or eight months old-the first or virgin clippings from the animal. This lofty stock is used in better grades of fabrics.
Linen - Flax is the plant, linen is the product from flax. The term, linen, cannot be used except for natural fiber flax. Among the properties of linen are rapid moisture absorption, fiber length of few inches to one yard, no fuzziness, does not soil quickly, a natural luster and stiffness. Uses of linen include tablecloths, toweling, crease-resistant linens, dress linens, doilies, runners, huckaback toweling, summer dress goods, sportswear, etc.
Llama - Members of this family group have four distinct types - llama, alpaca, guanaco, and vicuna - and two hybrid types - huarizo (llama father and alpaca mother) and paco-llama or misti (alpaca father and llama mother). "Llamaland" is in Peru and Bolivia. Not found north of the equator the animals live in the Andes Mountains and fleeces are obtained every two years, weight is about five pounds and staple fiber is about eleven inches. Fibers run from brown to black to white in color. The fabrics made of the fiber include sportswear, dress goods, women's coatings, suitings, and in the men's wear field, slip-on topcoats, year-round coatings, heavy coatings. Much used as a blending fiber with wool and worsted.
Madras - One of the oldest staples in the cotton trade, it is made on plain-weave background which is usually white; stripes, cords, or minute checks may be used to form the pattern. Fancy effects are often of satin or basket weave, or small twill repeat. White filling is used. Yarn counts range from 40s to 60s in warp and filling while textures approximate 110 warm ends and 88 picks.
Melton - A heavily felted, hard, plain face-finished cloth used for over coatings, uniform fabrics, hunting cloth, and riding habits, Light melton is the fabric used as "under-collar cloth" in coatings. Originated in the famous Melton Mowbray fox-hunting area in Leicestershire, England. Compared with its sister fabrics - kersey, beaver, and woolen broadcloth - it has the shortest nap which is not of the so-called laid nap, and it is dull in appearance and nonlustrous. Given double shearing in finishing to provide the close-cropped face-effect. Qualities vary considerably depending on the types of stocks used.